The Pre-Orthodontic Trainer
The Trainer for Braces
The TMJ Appliance
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Regular Treatment Plan

Indications for the
Pre-Orthodontic Trainer

Contra-Indications for the
Pre-Orthodontic Trainer

Uses of The Trainer to assist in Other Treatments

Patient Issue

Fitting and Adjustment

The Research



1. Angle, Dr. E.H.
"The Treatment of Malocclusion of the Teeth"
Edition 7. Chapter 2. Philadelphia: 1907.

2. Harvold, E. D.D.S., Ph.D., L.L.D., Tomer, B. D.D.S., Karin Vargervik, D.D.S., and George Chierici, D.D.S.
"Primate experiments on oral respiration"

3. Graber
"The Three M's. Muscles, malformation and malocclusion."
AJO-DO 1963 Jun 418-450.

4. Nevant C.T., Buschang P.H., Alexander R.G. and Steffen J.M.
"Lip Bumper Therapy for Gaining Arch Length"
(Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 1991;100:330-6)

5. Weinstein S.

6. Profit W. R.
Arch Oral Biol

7. Bresolin, D.D.S., M.S.D., Shapiro, P. D.D.S., M.S.D., Shapiro, G. M.D., Chapko, M K. Ph.D., and Dassel, S. M.D. Brasilia, D.F.,
Brazil, and Seattle, Wash.
"Mouth breathing in allergic children: Its relationship to dentofacial development"

8. Linder-Aronson, DDS, PhD, D. G. Woodside, DDSc, MSc(D), PhD(hc), E. Hellsing, DDS, PhD, and W. Emerson, DDS
Huddinge, Sweden, Toronto, Canada, and Loma Linda, Calif.
" Normalization of incisor position after adenoidectomy"

9. Gross, PhD, Kellum, PhD, Michas, BS, Franz, BA, Foster, MS, Walker, BA, and Bishop, DDS, MS.
" Open-mouth posture and maxillary arch width in young children: A three-year evaluation"
University, Miss.(AM J ORTHOD DENTOFAC ORTHOP 1994;106:635-40.)

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